On March 13th, the 20th edition of World Sleep Day was celebrated. An annual event organized by the World Sleep Day Committee of World Sleep Society whose objective is to inform and raise awareness among the general public about the importance of sleep and the risks related to its neglect.
Under the theme Better Sleep, Better Life, Better Planet, the 20th edition was focused on the impact of the quality of our sleep on our lifestyles.
We take advantage of this event to review the existing knowledge regarding cannabinoids and their effectiveness against sleep disorders.
Sleep is one of man’s basic needs just like breathing, eating or drinking. It is essential to our health and well-being because during sleep, our body “recharges” itself. It is therefore important not to neglect this vital stage for our functioning, especially when we know that it takes up a third of our life.
Research has shown that poor sleep quality can have negative health consequences. It promotes obesity and diabetes and affects memory and learning.
Sleep studies have shown that one in three adults does not get enough sleep according to the Centers for Control and Prevention
Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder and it is said to affect nearly 30% of the American adult population, 10% of whom are chronic insomniacs… It corresponds to a longer length of time to fall asleep, difficulty in maintaining to stay asleep, a light and restless sleep and frequent awakenings at night. In the long term, the lack of quality sleep could have harmful consequences on health. In fact, 75 to 90% of insomniacs present an increased risk of co-morbid medical disorders.
The therapeutic potential of cannabis has led scientists to consider it as a possible alternative to traditional treatments for sleep disorders. Thus, since the 2000s, research on the impact of cannabinoids on sleep cycles has multiplied.
Understanding Sleep Cycles
Sleep is composed of several cycles that follow one another. A complete sleep cycle lasts from 90 to 110 minutes and consists of two main phases: NREM sleep (Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep) and REM sleep (Rapid Eye Movement Sleep). 
The first major phase, NREM sleep, consists of four stages:
Wakefulness sleep is the first stage of sleep. It is the transition phase between wakefulness and light sleep and lasts only a few minutes. The body prepares to fall asleep, brain activity gradually decreases and muscles relax. This is the most fragile stage of sleep and awakening is very easy.
After this first stage, the body returns to light sleep (stage 2 or N2) where awakenings are less frequent. The body continues to prepare for sleep, body temperature gradually decreases, as does brain activity and eye movements.
Then, in stages 3 and 4, which are very similar, sleep enters a deeper state, known as deep sleep. This is the most restorative part of sleep and where it is most difficult to wake up.
The last phase of sleep is REM sleep (Rapid Eye Movement or paradoxical sleep) which lasts, on average, 10 minutes during the first cycle to reach 1 hour during the last cycle. Its name comes from the paradox that occurs during this phase, where one observes signs of deep sleep (paralysis of the body) and signs of awakening (intense brain activity, rapid eye movements, irregular breathing). REM sleep is often associated with the dream phase. 
Cannabinoids and sleep disorders
Used for thousands of years for its therapeutic virtues, cannabis is a subject that fascinates the scientific community, which has multiplied research in recent years to understand how it works. Therapeutic properties have been found to relieve various pathologies such as epilepsy, pain, depression and sleep disorders.
CBD, which is non-toxic and non-addictive, is believed to be more effective in relieving anxiety than in inducing sleep. 
At low doses, THC would have a sedative effect which would lengthen the total sleep duration by reducing the time of falling asleep but also by reducing the phase of REM sleep, which, it should be remembered, plays an essential role in the consolidation of memory.
On the other hand, at high doses, THC could have hallucinogenic effects, lengthen the time to fall asleep and reduce REM sleep.  The results observed during research on the co-administration of THC and CBD differed according to the ratio of CBD:THC.
In fact, co-administration (oro-mucosal spray) of 5mg CBD/ 5mg THC and 15mg CBD/ 15mg THC would reduce deep sleep, and for the latter, an increase in wakefulness would also be observed. It seems that when taken together, CBD inhibits the sedative properties of THC.
Today, research studying the impact of medical cannabis on sleep cycles has shown that THC could be a good alternative to improve sleep, but many factors such as dosage, mode of administration and more, should be taken into account to obtain a more positive and accurate result. More research will be needed in the coming years to finally reveal the effectiveness of cannabinoids against sleep disorders.
 Memar, P., & Faradji, F. (2018). A Novel Multi-Class EEG-Based Sleep Stage Classification System. IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, 26(1), 84–95. doi:10.1109/tnsre.2017.2776149
 Shannon, S et alt. (2019). Cannabidiol in Anxiety and Sleep: A Large Case Series. The Permanente Journal. doi:10.7812/tpp/18-041
 Garcia, A. N., & Salloum, I. M. (2015). Polysomnographic sleep disturbances in nicotine, caffeine, alcohol, cocaine, opioid, and cannabis use: A focused review. The American Journal on Addictions, 24(7), 590–598. doi:10.1111/ajad.12291
According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), there are more than 1 billion people living with vision impairment such as short and far sightedness, glaucoma and cataract. In most cases, these could have easily been prevented or treated with cataracts operation, access to glasses, or access to economical health care. However, a report states that stronger integration of eye care is needed within national health services, through prevention, early detection, treatment and rehabilitation. Today we want to analyze if medical cannabis can be useful in the treatment of glaucoma.
What is glaucoma?
Glaucoma is caused by abnormally high intraocular pressure (IOP). IOP is the fluid pressure inside the eye. Due to the high pressure, the retina and the optic nerve leads to the process of losing vision.
It can be undiagnosed in 9/10 people who are affected globally in which 50% of those are in developed countries. Therefore, detection of this disease should be improved. Glaucoma is thought to be present only when at least one eye has both optic disc damage and visual field loss. The combination of this damage can sufficiently indicate the death of a substantial number of retinal ganglion cells and loss of the optic nerve.
Endocannabinoid system in the eye
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is present in the eye in both anterior and posterior ocular tissues including the retina, the ciliary body, trabecular meshwork and Schlemm’s canal. The ECS include cannabinoid receptors, cognate degradative and biosynthetic enzymes (proteins), and endocannabinoids, such as anandamide (AEA) and 2- arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). The presence of all these components supports an important role for the ocular function such as reduced tear production and reduction in IOP.
Is there treatment for glaucoma?
Long term effects of cannabinoids on glaucoma
Traditional treatment includes prescribing medications, going through laser treatments or even surgery. These approaches normally require treatment over decades, therefore any medical cannabis designed must be safe and effective when administering to those who are confirmed to be diagnosed with glaucoma.To date, studies evaluating the effectiveness of medical cannabis in long-term use have had mixed results. Most studies have reported loss of effect of IOP lowering properties within a matter of hours. However, a study by Hosseini and his colleagues found that chronic topical application of 0.5% WIN 55,212-2 (synthetic THC) was effective in reducing IOP for 1 month in rats.3
Moreover, a different research from 2018 has shown that endocannabinoid system may not only reduce eye pressure but can also act on certain receptors to act as a neuro-protecter against damage to the optic nerve.  However, this is no news as a study in 2009 showed how cannabinoids receptors (CB1 and CB2) expression are involved in survival and death, in retinal cells. 
With more research dedicated to this, it can have the potential to prevent glaucoma or other retinal neurodegenerative diseases.
Regardless, “the Canadian Ophthalmological Society does not support the medical use of cannabis for the treatment of glaucoma due to the short duration of action, the incidence of undesirable psychotropic and other systemic side effects, and the absence of scientific evidence showing a beneficial effect on the course of the disease”.
World Glaucoma Day
World Glaucoma Day is celebrated on the 12th of March, but awareness week in 2020 takes place from 8th to 14th March.
In conclusion, while there have been studies proving that cannabis has certain properties that could help (as an adjuvant treatment) prevent glaucoma, more investigation has to be carried out in order to fully find a viable treatment for glaucoma, dosing and to avoid any adverse effects.
 Cairns, E. A., et alt. (2016). The Endocannabinoid System as a Therapeutic Target in Glaucoma. Neural Plasticity, 2016, 1–10. doi:10.1155/2016/9364091doi:10.2174/1570159X15666170724104305
 Rapino C, et alt. Neuroprotection by (endo)Cannabinoids in Glaucoma and Retinal Neurodegenerative Diseases. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2018;16(7):959-970. doi:10.2174/1570159X15666170724104305
 Yan Wei et al. Presence and regulation of cannabinoid receptors in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. Mol Vis. 2009; 15: 1243–1251.
Dabbing is an effective way to consume cannabis and also a great ritual. Similar to cooking a great meal or mixing a refreshing cocktail, the process of preparing and executing the perfect dab can be meditative and provide a moment to decompress. Like a baseball player stepping up to the plate, as dabbing becomes more familiar, you’ll fall into a routine with your own methods and motions.
Once you know how to dab, there are a number of different techniques you can use to dial in the experience and find the method that work best for you to can achieve the right dab at the right temperature.
You’re excited to grow weed in your garden and you think, “How hard can this be? It’s called weed for a reason, right?” Right! And while it’s most certainly not rocket science, there are some mistakes you can make. Read on and learn how to steer clear of the most common.Don’t shy away from seedsIf you’re new to gardening, it can be extra scary to start something from seed. While the act of turning a small hard thing into a living plant is certainly magical, it turns out it’s not actually that hard. You need no special equipment—no heated mats, no artificial light—just some potting soil, sunshine, and water.And it’s worth it to start from seed—a cannabis seedling (a plant in a juvenile state) is far more forgiving than a finicky clone, ready to snap into flowering the moment conditions aren’t perfect. Additionally, seed-started plants form a strong taproot, anchoring them more firmly into the soil. They’re more disease-resistant, too.